26 July 2000
An Open Letter from:
JAvoice.com: Committee for a Fair and Accurate Japanese American Memorial
Mr. Robert Stanton
Director, National Park Service
1849 C Street N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20240
Subject:: Response to your 7-12-2000 letter re: Japanese American national memorial
Dear Mr. Stanton:
JAvoice.com: Committee for a Fair and Accurate Japanese American Memorial received the 12 July 2000 letter you wrote to Rita Takahashi in response to this committees 22 June 2000 letter. Attached to the committees letter were the resolution and the names of hundreds of signers who went "on record objecting to the [National Park Service] NPSs failure to fulfill its mandate to ensure accuracy and integrity of the memorial, and protesting the [National Japanese American Memorial Foundation] NJAMFs lack of respect for and sensitivity to the rich diversity of the Japanese American community."
We are now attaching an updated list of 980 names of persons who signed the resolution and who continue their resolve "That the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interior oversee the integrity of this Japanese American national memorial and fully investigate the NPS to ensure that it has fulfilled its duties, obligations, and mandates." Signers are disappointed that the NPS did not fully review and analyze the inscriptions for historical accuracy. As a result, important changes were not made and the integrity of the memorial is compromised. The public has a right to receive a complete explanation and accounting of the NPSs decisions and actions, including answers to the following:
1. The ways in which the National Park Service complied with general federal guidelines for review of such a controversial issue by disinterested experts.
2. The names of the disinterested experts who were consulted.
3. The research and findings of these disinterested experts.
4. The extent to and ways in which the National Park Service utilized staff historians.
5. The names of NPS staff historians who were consulted.
6. The names of other professional historians or subject experts the NPS consulted.
7. The research and findings of the staff historians, professional historians, and subject experts.
The concerns and will of the public are not being heard by the National Park Service. Nationwide, many are stepping forward and taking exception to faulty assumptions and incorrect statements articulated in your letter. In a matter of days, JAvoice.com received numerous comments and suggestions, all verifying that there is a rising anger over what appears to be a lack of accountability from the U.S. Department of Interior and its National Park Service. Integrated throughout this letter are samples of the concerns received from people throughout the U.S. and beyond. Signers of the resolution are dissatisfied with the lack of any evidence that the U.S. Department of Interior has overseen "the integrity of this Japanese American national memorial."
Assertion that Masaoka is a Civil Rights Leader
In this letter, we need not repeat in detail what has been presented to you many times by JAvoice.com and hundreds of people throughout the United States. Research findings and evidence have been presented to the National Park Service, proving that Masaoka and the organization he represented, the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), did not defend and firmly uphold the communitys civil and constitutional rights. On the contrary, he and the organization he represented not only espoused going along with infringements upon these rights, but they also suggested discriminatory policies.
Evidence presented from scholarly research contradicts your assertion that "Mr. Masaoka was a key civil rights leader." JAvoice.com and other community individuals have already produced significant amounts of evidence disproving your assertion. We challenge you, the NPS, and U.S. Department of Interior to produce research and findings supporting the NPSs conclusions. We would like to review all the research evidence produced by the disinterested experts, historians, and subject experts who were consulted before your decisions were made.
Scholars and researchers who have thoroughly studied this subject for years had this to say in response to your claim that "Mr. Masaoka was a key civil rights leader":
"This is revisionist history at best (and I use the term history politely here) -- Stanton's reference to Masaoka as a civil rights leader during WW II! The body of scholarship contradicts Stanton's notion. Masaoka didn't even speak for Japanese Americans, and his words and deeds favored fascism and not democracy. Add my outrage to this latest of outrages." Gary Okihiro, Columbia University, Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race and Professor of International and Public Affairs, 7-18-2000
"It is grossly offensive that the name and quotation of Mike Masaoka is inscribed on one of the panels when there is official documented evidence that many of his recommendations resulted in implementation of policies by the government that led to prolonged family separations and untold suffering and hardship." Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, researcher, 7-23-2000
"I am writing a college text on the history of Japanese Americans. My review of published scholarship and archival materials cited by professional historians does not support NPS Director Stanton's assertion, in his letter of July 12, 2000 to Dr. Rita Takahashi, that current scholarship on the subject supports the NPS decision to include Mike Masaoka as a civil rights leader in World War II. In fact, publications and doctoral dissertations overwhelmingly refute such a claim." Nadine Hata, El Camino College, Professor of History, 7-23-2000
"In my studies and teaching, Mike Masaoka does not emerge in history as a civil rights leader during World War II. To the contrary, by the facts of his words and actions, he strikes students as being one who acted against civil rights.
"Those who defend Masaoka against this criticism usually comment that students today do not understand the context in which Masaoka spoke, wrote, and acted, in World War II. But the criticism still remains, because the context is studied, and it is the context that gives rise to the judgment of Mike Masaoka." Stephen H. Sumida, University of Washington, Professor of American Ethnic Studies, 7-21-2000
"I have taught courses on Japanese Americans in World War II for thirty years, and I am familiar with the published books and articles on the subject by respected professional historians. There is no basis for NPS Chief Stanton's claim, in his letter to Professor Rita Takahashi, that current scholarship identifies Mike Masaoka as a Japanese American civil rights leader in World War II. Instead, the scholarship suggests that Masaoka's place in history is one of notoriety rather than fame." Don Hata, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Professor of History, 7-23-2000
"NPS is trashing careful research done since 1946 and accepting uncritically an ahistorical message about incarcerated Japanese Americans during World War II. [Scholars] state that JAs [Japanese Americans] resented JACL leaders. The leaders were objectionable to most evacuees -- they were following a collaborationist policy. . . .JACL was looked upon as a small group that betrayed the JAs. . . .Most of the works put forth the view that Masaoka deplored any JA resistance and worked to identify 'known agitators'." Mitziko Sawada, Hampshire College, Professor Emerita of History, 7-24-2000
"The identification of Masaoka as a civil rights leader either during or after the internment creates an odd and troubling definition of what civil rights leader means. If civil rights leader is defined as one who will fight against the persecution of an oppressed minority and who seeks justice in the face of societal and governmental hostility, then a generation of scholars has found Masaoka lacking -- whether it be with respect to his collaborationist role during the camps or with respect to his support for the Walter-McCarran Act which was strongly opposed by numerous progressive civil rights organizations or his initial hostility to monetary reparations for Japanese-Americans after the camps." Chris Iijima, University of Hawaii, law professor, 7-24-2000
In your letter, you say that NPS "reviewed all of the inscriptions proposed for the memorial" and that this "resulted in revisions to the narrative." A total of five changes were identified in your letter. JAvoice.com and the 980 resolution signers are disappointed that the NPS did not make other very important changes that are of great concern to the community. A sampling of responses from the community reveals dissent and dissatisfaction:
"The latest version of the inscriptions . . .contains misleading or historically incorrect information. With twenty years of research experience in this specific field, and as senior research associate for the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, I have sincerely and diligently recommended to the executive director of the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation and to the National Park Service over the past half year that certain textual revisions be made to reflect the true history of the World War II experience of Japanese Americans. That the NPS and NJAMF have chosen to ignore certain suggested corrections communicated to them not only by me but also by a number of knowledgeable researchers, writers and scholars is nothing short of appalling." Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, 7-23-2000
"I am extremely disappointed that Director Stanton made the decisions he did, with changes which were minimal. I am unhappy that the NPS did not hold scoping sessions to receive input from the community early on, as is normally done by public agencies, which might have avoided the present controversy. It appears that NPS did a superficial study of the narrative and gave it all to the [NJAMF] foundation to handle. This means that as a member of the Manzanar Advisory Commission, I must be more alert to the planning of the Manzanar National Historic Site, so that the interpretation will be absolutely honest and accurate." Sue Kunitomi Embrey, 7-18-2000
"The NPS decision to make minor changes is not enough. They do not go far enough in correcting a situation that is an insult to those who disagree with the philosophy and viewpoint the Masaoka quote entails." Rick Heredia, 7-21-2000
"I find it appal[l]ing that the Park Service would keep the Masaoka quote when there is documented proof that the Japanese American community is so strongly against it." Scot Kamimae, 7-20-2000
"Neither Mike Masaoka nor the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) speak[s] for me or represent[s] what I hold dear regarding American values of democracy. Please ensure that you represent an accurate portrayal of our history without distortions or bias toward any [individual] or [any] organization which includes Mike Masaoka and the JACL who betrayed the best interests of the Japanese American community in a time of our greatest need." Ruth Hidaka, 7-20-2000
"The whole sentiment behind the letter [to the U.S. Department of Interior] should communicate our unceasing commitment to the success of our agenda: we will not stop agitating or creating pressure." Diana Morita Cole, 7-19-2000
"In light of the controversy surrounding the inscriptions, I believe the best option now would be to eliminate quotations of any kind." Rich Iwasaki, 7-21-2000
"[I]f people are planning to demonstrate against the CHIQUITA MEMORIAL dedication . . . Id be willing to come." Randy Miyazaki, 7-19-2000
Your letter states that each of the eight quotations on the memorial "contributes to the depiction of the story and emotion of the memorial." JAvoice.com and hundreds of others have stated, many times, that one particular quotation contradicts the message the memorial is supposed to convey. For many, Mike Masaoka represents the opposite of upholding human, civil, and constitutional rights because of his World War II statements and deeds. Respondents confirmed the strong feelings that exist in the community:
"Will present and future generations of children see complicity in one's own and other's oppression as heroic?" Jean Ishibashi, 7-25-2000
"The statement that will appear on the Memorial makes a mockery of [equal rights]. Please re-consider your decision to include the quotation. It does no service to the Japanese American community or to the public's understanding of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights." Glenda Nogami, 7-24-2000
"The decision to include Masaoka's quote, without reference to its context or its objectionable significance to many Japanese Americans, does not give fair or accurate representation of Japanese America. Rather, the National Park Service's present course will enshrine a distorted and harmful representation of Japanese Americans for the entire world to see." Eric Hamako, 7-20-2000
"This is a sad day in the history of this great nation that we honor a traitor amongst the Japanese American[s] with the Masaoka quote. I will not view the monument when I go to Washington D. C. nor will I contribute any more funds for this memorial. I have had it!!!
"I was in the regular army and then in the reserve army during the Korean War. I served my time for this Country but to put a quote of a collaborator on a memorial is beyond me." George Shindo, 7-22-2000
"I would challenge those who know the background of this matter to ask themselves if they would want to honor Mike Masaoka were his face white. Would his actions and behaviors then seem as honourable?
. . . true loyalty and true patriotism can only be measured against the principles upon which a nation is built -- if those principles be decent and good. And if they be that, those principles and the laws and executive orders that flow from them must stand true during all times, not just good ones.
It is only by honoring the truth of our pastspersonal and collectivethat we have any hope of becoming the free society America was meant to be." Wayne H. Cole, 7-23-2000
"I would like to register my disappointment and protest on the Japanese American Memorial. Mr. Masaoka's quote [does] not reflect my feelings nor the true historical experience of Japanese Americans. It is too bad that this memorial will present a one-sided perspective of our history. Mr. Masaoka's remarks are a reflection of his beliefs and do not represent the entire J[apanese] A[merican] community. There was very little input on what would be appropriate for this memorial and unfortunately those who see it in Washington, D.C. will not have the complete picture. I think this is a disgrace and an insult to our experience in America." Sandy Maeshiro, 7-20-00
"[Mike Masaoka's quotation]. . .does neither represent nor reflect overall feelings of the Japanese American community. I hope your good [NPS] office [will] be more sensitive to the uneasy sentiment of the community and especially to the painful experiences of their past. Thus I cordially request that you [NPS] reconsider . . . the quotation that may become a true memorial in the spirit of reconciliation and justice, not divisive tone of an old paternalism." Professor Dong Soo Kim, Norfolk State University, 7-20-2000
"Robert Stanton's position, expressed in his letter, as a representative of the US government regarding Mike Masaoka is truly disingenuous and it definitely has [the] odor of JACL influence...
. . .
The current position of the US Government with collaboration of JACL sadly reminds me of those sad days of WWII when the US government with support of JACL caused untold and unjustifiable ruining of many JA families, physically and spiritually, and resultant immeasurable human sufferings and destructions which, in turn, have sadly affected, directly and/or indirectly, the subsequent J[apanese] A[merican] generations. Yes, indeed, it is a sad day to witness the repeat of the history of shame and injustice." Hitoshi Naito, 7-22-2000
NJAMF Board Actions
Your letter states that the NJAMF Board "has considered this matter and voted on numerous occasions to include Mr. Masaoka." What you do not say is that the Board processes have been improper, irregular, and error-ridden, leading to nationwide dissension. In many instances, the Board did not follow common rules of meeting order, and it frequently ignored decisions passed at previous Board meetings. The following are some examples of the problematic nature of this boards conduct.
The Board failed to provide important information to the community, to keep them informed, and to welcome input. Instead, it imposed its decisions on the public after they were made. This, coming from a board that is not representative of the community, caused a great deal of upheaval and anger. One example of this is conveyed in the following:
"The Board members of NJAMF have chosen to ignore the concerns of the 100th and 442nd veteran groups in Hawaii who object to the inclusion of Mr. Masaoka's quotation. The concurrence of these two groups is absolutely mandatory because without the original 100th Infantry Battalion, there would not have been the 442nd. In turn, without the Hawaii volunteers, there wouldn't have been enough men to form the 442nd. In short, without the Hawaii members in these units, this proposed memorial wouldn't even be possible." Isami Yoshihara, 7-22-2000
At its 8 July 2000 Board meeting in San Francisco, the Board was called into an immediate closed "executive session" at the beginning of the meeting, without prior notice to Board members and without prior discussion as to its purpose or subject matter. The topics taken up should not have been deemed confidential and worthy of a "closed session" because they involved no personnel action or sensitive matters. Rather, the subjects were essentially, how to control the flow of information from the Board to the public.
The two closed session items were: 1. to determine whether to close the meeting to the public and to declare the entire meeting a closed "executive session" (there were many visitors and members of the press present before the meeting started, and this was during the height of board controversy over the memorial inscriptions) and, 2. to decide whether Board Members should be precluded from saying anything about what happened during the Board meeting.
If the NJAMF were a public or local agency in California, it would have been in violation of the Ralph M. Brown Act, the intent of which is to prevent entities from hiding behind the shield of closed sessions to keep the public from receiving or giving information and expressing opinions. Specifically, the law says, "It is the intent of the law that their deliberations be conducted openly. The people of this State [California] do not yield their sovereignty to the agencies which serve them. The people, in delegating authority, do not give their public servants the right to decide what is good for the people to know and what is not good for them to know. The people insist on remaining informed so that they may retain control over the instruments they have created." (California Government Code, Section 54950)
In conjunction with the 8 July 2000 NJAMF Board Meeting in San Francisco, two organizations (National Japanese American Historical Society and Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California) agreed to sponsor and host an open reception whereby the public would be invited to meet Board members and given the opportunity to interact with them. A private individual agreed to pay all costs for the event, so the NJAMF would have incurred no expenses for the proposed open and public gathering. The NJAMF declined the offer and instead, held a private reception for invited guests. Consistent with previous actions, NJAMF refused to open itself to the public, to supply information and explanations, and to welcome comments and suggestions.
Many on the NJAMF Board are also active in JACL, and not surprisingly, they decided to recognize a former employee of their organization and a portion of their organizational "creed." This singles out one organization for recognition, which many find inappropriate. Thomas Y. Fujita Rony, an Asian American Studies professor at California State University, Fullerton, correctly notes in his 23 July 2000 communication that, "Mr. Masaoka's quotation is the only one that is also part of an official document of an organization, which seems to elevate that group above others, a divisive action."
Standard practices surrounding conflict of interest rules were also violated, whereby persons who stood to benefit themselves or knew the actions would benefit their relatives or close associates failed to recuse themselves on important votes, including the one involving Masaokas inscription. All Board members know about ethical standards, and each is responsible for upholding proper codes of conduct.
Furthermore, the Board did not give due care and attention to historical accuracy and correctness. Despite repeated communications about errors in the text, changes were not made. This and voting in favor of inscriptions before even knowing what the inscriptions said conveyed a strong message of sloppiness and irresponsibility. Mel Chiogioji, NJAMFs Board Chair, is quoted in an article saying, "I dont give a damn what the inscriptions say, lets just get it over with!" (MidWeek, 5-24-00, p. 6).
In their responses to your letter, the community revealed unhappiness with the NJAMF and NPSs unresponsiveness to and disregard for public opinions. No matter how many times the board voted on the inscriptions, it did not reflect the broad-range opinions and experiences of the community.
"I appreciate the effort of this [NJAMF] board to preserve a positive and long-lasting history for our future families and children. However, Professor Takahashi's comments are closer to the reality of the situation than your board perceives.
"There is clearly a disconnect occurring between the NJAMF and the community. I urge you to convene an emergency meeting of your board in order to specifically address the issues involved with the many objections being raised with the current design." Kenneth Hayashida, Medical Doctor, 7-22-2000
"I am angered at the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation's stubborn refusal to acknowledge the bad feelings the Mike Masaoka quote engenders.
"I am baffled as to why they would continue to disregard the wishes of those in the community and push forth with an idea that many are unhappy with.
"At first, I was proud and honored to hear such a memorial was being built. If it goes forward as planned, I want nothing to do with it." Karyn Kubo Lamborn, 7-20-2000
"I find it distasteful that Masaoka's inscription will live on long after the [N]isei who fought to have their civil rights restored by other means are gone, with no recognition of their struggles. The memorial should recognize the struggle of the entire JA community for equality and civil rights, not just one person's views of what imprisonment meant to him." Gene Nitta, 7-20-2000
"Along with the voice of thousands of others, I ask that the National Park Service not proceed with its present plans for a Japanese American memorial, until a more just and representative plan has been approved through the democratic process which the Park Service promised America." Eric Hamako, 7-20-2000
You say that "the research about this period in our history is ongoing and it is possible that current historical thinking may change." Of course research and history are ongoing, but the current research has already produced substantial proof that, through word and deed, Masaoka did not uphold civil and constitutional rights. Further, it is already an established fact that there was wide-spread dissent and a great deal of protest stemming from Masaoka and JACLs roles during World War II.
One respondent, whose father worked for the War Relocation Authority (WRA), recalled his fathers assessments of Masaoka and JACL:
"My late father, Robert H. Ross, who worked for the WRA as a reports officer at the Tule Lake Camp/Segregation Center consistently maintained that Masaoka was a traitor to the [C]onstitution, to the Japanese Americans of his time, to the interests of both those immigrants born in Japan and their children, [A]merican citizens all.
"He talked numerous times of duplicity and collaboration with the WRA's most racist and punitive elements, the congressional critics and the Army who encircled all in the camp and saw those inside as the [same] as the enemy. He decried the role of the elements of the JACL as being a polarizing influence that at crucial times he compared to throwing gasoline on a fire in the Tule Lake Camp as it went through the turmoil that was called Segregation." John R. Ross, 7-20-2000
Knowledge of facts and experiences have already shaped "historical thinking," but as the general public becomes more aware and educated to what really happened, there will be greater demands to change the inscriptions. The public will insist on eliminating elements that are revisions of history and that symbolize violations of human, civil and constitutional rights.
Standards of Research
It is astonishing that you question the integrity of current research on this subject without producing the names and findings of the disinterested scholars, historians, and subject experts who justify your conclusions. JAvoice.com believes it is imperative that the NPS provide public access to the information the NPS used to make its decisions and come to these conclusions. It asks that the NPS document its compliance with federal regulatory standards in dealing with these controversial issues.
JAvoice.com has already produced research findings proving its points about historical inaccuracies and inappropriateness of the inscriptions. You and the public may visit the committees website, JAvoice.com, and review the documentation, which includes the Lim Report, quotations from Mike Masaokas own final report to JACL, and citations from documents on deposit at various research facilities, including University of Californias Bancroft Library and the National Archives.
Need for Further Research
You state that, "although Mr. Masaoka has been charged with making some statements which are offensive, these must be the subject of further research. . ." Clearly, many found his statements and actions offensive during the World War II period, and those feelings are still alive and well today. Responding to your statement, Professor Fujita Rony says in his 23 July 2000 communication that, "It is . . . problematic to state that he is being charged . . . for Masaoka himself has established his authorship on numerous occasions. . . . documents in the National Archives deposited by the War Relocation Authority and the Justice Department clearly show that JACL leaders like Mr. Masaoka were removed from various camps because other Japanese Americans were opposed to their actions. . ."
In further response to your statement here, researcher Jack Herzig offered this for your consideration:
"If Mr. Stanton is really seeking a statement that adds to the ongoing research of the Mike Masaoka era, then consider this confession by the man himself. . . . On July 16, 1981, Mr. Masaoka made the following revealing statement at a hearing of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians:
You will hear about me because I was 'Moses' Masaoka, the only Christian who ever led his people out of civilized communities into desert camps, and I know what it means to have people of my own race make little effigies of me and defecate and urinate on them.
"Who can claim that Mr. Masaoka was loved by the Issei and Nisei in view of his own confession? Who can claim that only those who were incarcerated can understand what Mr. Masaoka did for them when his own words reveal what he knew and they knew he did to them?
"If Mr. Stanton is looking for a valid statement for an inscription, try this one from an unimpeachable source." Jack Herzig, Advisor to Commission on Wartime Relocation & Internment of Civilians; Witness for redress legislation before both Houses of Congress, 7-23-2000.
You correctly state that research "must be judged in the context of [Masaokas] other achievements during his lifetime." This principle of inclusive consideration supports JAvoice.coms position that it is wrong to ignore and disregard Masaokas words and actions of World War II and to focus on his post-war efforts only.
One must question the need for further research to determine whether Masaokas statements are "offensive," as you suggest. The words conveyed by Masaoka are clear and straightforward. Without doubt, his statements and actions offended and upset many, as has been well established by reputable scholars utilizing unimpeachable documentary sources. Government officials and Masaoka himself have documented in their reports that he and the organization he represented led to unrest, protests, and violence in the camps.
The facts are documented and substantiated. During World War II, Masaoka and the organization he represented advocated for Japanese Americans to "constructively cooperate" with the government, even if the programs and policies were highly discriminatory. Not only did they shirk their responsibilities to uphold and defend the rights and liberties for which the nation had gone to war, but they also gave assistance to the government by providing them with intelligence information and suggesting policies. Erin Suzukawa described her feelings about this:
"The disagreement [about the memorial] . . .is over the inclusion of a quote that memorializes the selling out of our community. . . .I also feel that it is highly inappropriate for the National Park Service to have chosen the most controversial panel as one of the first to be engraved. It is deeply insulting that the National Park Service believes that the opinions, emotions, memories, and history of so many Japanese Americans do not merit serious consideration." Erin Suzukawa, 7-20-2000
Justification for Excluding Masaokas Name and Quotation
The argument presented in your letter that additional research is needed is a logical justification for withholding Masaokas name and quotation from the memorial and halting further etching processes, pending a full review of all inscriptions for historical accuracy by disinterested experts, staff historians, and subject experts.
JAvoice.com: Committee for a Fair and Accurate Japanese American Memorial
Sue Kunitomi Embrey (Los Angeles, CA)
Sam Fromartz (Washington, D.C.)
Don Hata (Redondo Beach, CA)
Nadine Hata (Redondo Beach, CA)
Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga (Falls Church, VA)
Jack Herzig (Falls Church, VA)
William Hohri (Lomita, CA)
Chris Iijima (Honolulu, HI)
Yeiichi "Kelly" Kuwayama (Washington, D.C.)
Dale Minami (San Francisco, CA)
Don Nakanishi (Los Angeles, CA)
Gene Oishi (Baltimore, MD)
Chizu Omori (Seattle, WA)
Dina Shek (San Francisco, CA)
Francis Sogi (New York and Honolulu, HI)
Judy Tachibana (Sacramento, CA)
Rita Takahashi (Berkeley, CA)
Drusilla Tanaka (Honolulu, HI)
Clifford Uyeda (San Francisco, CA)
Eric Yamamoto (Honolulu, HI)
Steve Yoda (Stanford, CA)
Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interior
John Parsons, Associate Regional Director, National Park Service
Members, House Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Lands
Members, Senate Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation, & Recreation
Senator Daniel Inouye
Senator Daniel Akaka
Representative Patsy Mink
Representative Robert Matsui
NJAMF Executive Director, Chair, and Board of Directors
Signers of the resolution via JAvoice.com website
Authors of quotations
Members of the press